Female Entrepreneurship and the Market Process: Gender-Based Public Policy Considerations
Vol. Volume 4, Number 2 April/1999
Deborah Walker and Brenda E. Joyner
Dr. Deborah Walker is Associate Professor of Economics and Dr. Brenda E. Joyner is Assistant Professor of Management at the College of Business Administration, Loyola University New Orleans. The authors would like to thank the editors and reviewers for the valuable insights they provided as this article was developed. Funding for this work was provided a research grant from Loyola University New Orleans.
This paper explores the theoretical aspects of gender-based public policy programs specifically designed to increase the number of women creating and developing new ventures, and the economic impacts of these programs on entrepreneurship and the market process (resource allocation). Using a conceptual framework of four kinds of discrimination, analysis of four Small Business Administration programs demonstrated a possible increase in pure gender discrimination due to resentment of programs targeted toward women. Potential decreases in all four kinds of discrimination were associated with the SBA programs. A framework was developed that describes circumstances under which resource allocation is more or less efficient.
Entrepreneurship, women entrepreneurs, discrimination, public policy, start-up capital