Thinking and Slacking or Doing and Feeling? Gender and the Interplay of Cognition and Affect in New Venture Planning
Vol. Volume 16 Number 2 June/2011
Craig E. Armstrong
Studies of the relationship between gender and entrepreneurship have shown that men are significantly more likely to start a new business than women. Because an individual's entrepreneurial intentions are shaped by the perceived feasibility and desirability of an entrepreneurial opportunity, these results have generally emphasized how men perceive themselves as more capable of pursing entrepreneurial opportunities than women. In this study, men have a higher level of self-efficacy than do women regarding entrepreneurial abilities. At the same time, the higher levels of involvement in business planning processes caused women to have higher sense of ownership in the plan than did men. This sense of ownership is positively and significantly related to the perceived likelihood of success of the new venture. The findings of this study suggest women adopt certain roles and affects in the development of entrepreneurial opportunities that provide alternative explanations to the beliefs-attitudes-intentions-behavior model of intentionality. The roles and affects women adopt during new venture planning may give them superior insights into the likelihood of success of the new venture.
Gender, New Venture planning, Affect, Sense of Ownership, Self-efficacy