ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY IN AMERICAN INDIAN NATIONS: EXTENDING THE GEM METHODOLOGY
Vol. Volume 18, Number 2 June/2013
Rebecca J. Franklin, Michael H. Morris and Justin W. Webb
Drawing on institutional theory and using a methodologyadapted from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), early stageentrepreneurial activities are examined within American Indian nations.Examining a context within a larger institutional context, comparisons are madebetween three American Indian nations and the United States. Patterns areidentified regarding total entrepreneurial activity (TEA), nascententrepreneurship, business discontinuation and new and established businessrates. Additional analyses are conducted of individual-level variables withinAmerican Indian nations including location, self-efficacy and other variablesin relation to nascent entrepreneurship and business ownership. Implicationsare drawn for tribal entrepreneurship development and further extension of theGEM methodology.
Economic development, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), institutions, nation-building, Native American entrepreneurship