An Examination of the Competitive Attitudes of Entrepreneurs: Implications for Entrepreneurial Orientation at the Individual Level
Vol. Volume 18, Number 2 June/2013
This exploratory study examined the competitive attitudes of entrepreneurs using the psychological theory of hypercompetitiveness versus personal development competitiveness in data from a cross-section of small business entrepreneurs. Results suggest that most entrepreneurs view themselves, and their cohort, as personal development (e.g. growth oriented) competitors rather than as hypercompetitors(e. g., dominant individuals). The analysis suggests that, when applied at the individual level, the entrepreneurial orientation dimension of competitive aggressiveness should be reconceptualized to include not only hypercompetitiveness but also personal development competitiveness. Implications for the theories of entrepreneurial gender, affective engagement, interactional competitiveness, and self-actualization are discussed.
Competitiveness, competitive aggressiveness, entrepreneurial orientation, hypercompetitiveness, personal development competitiveness, self-actualization